DNV: Technology Qualification Study for CO2 Ship Transport Chain

Advancing CO2 Shipping Technology: The CETO Project's Findings

The CO2 Efficient Transport via Ocean (CETO) joint industry project (JiP) recently concluded, presenting findings from a Technology Qualification study. Partners, including Equinor, Gassco, Shell, TotalEnergies, and DNV, found no technological barriers to a low-pressure CO2 ship transport chain. Funded by these partners and Gassnova through the CLIMIT-Demo programme, the project emphasizes the importance of CO2 transport for effective Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS).

For CCS to significantly reduce emissions, transporting large quantities of CO2 is crucial. While pipelines are an option, ship transport is essential for unconnected capture sources and storage sites. Low-pressure ship solutions (around 7 bar at -49ºC) offer a commercially viable alternative.

During the Technology Qualification, the partners assessed the CO2 ship transport value chain, including liquid CO2 production, impurities, plant concepts, cargo handling, and designing a 30,000 m³ Liquid CO2 carrier. The study confirmed the feasibility and readiness of low-pressure CO2 shipping technology for initial use. Vessel design complied with international regulations, including the IMO IGC code and DNV ship rules. Tests on a medium-scale pilot plant showed that cargo handling between 6 to 9 barg could be done without dry ice formation. Design process simulation tools were validated against experimental tests, proving their accuracy and the benefits of dynamic process simulations.

Key attention areas for project development include material selection for cargo tanks, fatigue, and sloshing loads.

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Expert Statements

Erik Mathias Sørhaug, Business Development Director CO2 Shipping at DNV: “Leading this JIP initiated by CCS pioneers TotalEnergies, Shell, Equinor, and Gassco has been an honor for DNV. The project proves the technical feasibility of a low-pressure solution, enabling low-cost transportation for CCS projects.”

Lee Teng-Huar, General Manager, Maritime Operations, Asia Pacific and Middle East at Shell: “The CETO JIP’s conclusions mark a crucial milestone in advancing CCS technology. Optimizing low-pressure liquid CO2 transportation enhances the economic viability of CCS initiatives, accelerating the industry’s journey towards a sustainable, low-carbon future.”

Ola Miljeteig, Vice President, R&D CCS solutions at Equinor: “Equinor is thrilled that technology risks around low-pressure CO2 ship transport are now reduced. This technology is crucial for achieving our goal of 30-50 million tons per year of CO2 transport and injection capacity by 2035.”

Svein-Erik Losnegård, Vice President Research and Development at Gassco: “Gassco is proud to contribute to low-pressure CO2 ship transport technology development. The CETO project has reduced technology risks, enhancing the readiness of transport solutions for a comprehensive CCS value chain.”

Marie-Noelle Semeria, Chief Technology Officer at TotalEnergies: “Safe and efficient CO2 transport by ship is essential for bridging carbon capture with storage or usage. The CETO JiP milestone advances TotalEnergies’ path towards carbon neutrality alongside society.”


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